Glossary

ВОО (Build-Own-Operate) — design circuit, where the design company that constructs the facility also subsequently owns and operates this facility. This form of project financing allows the accumulation of necessary financial resources, decreased investment risk, and combines the interests of various parties being members of the project.

INES — International Nuclear Events Scale, adopted to facilitate communication and understanding between nuclear industry experts, mass media, and the public, as regards the magnitude of events / incidents at nuclear units in terms of safety. The Scale places all events into one of its seven levels: higher-level events (4-7) are known as 'emergency'; lower-level events (1-3) are 'incidents'. Events that are negligible in terms of safety are placed at Level 0 beyond the Scale, and are known as 'deviations'. Events irrelevant to safety are placed beyond the Scale, and are known to be 'off-scale'.

Core zone — part of the reactor that houses nuclear fuel, the moderator, beta absorber, heat medium, reactive impact devices, and structural elements used to enable a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction and transmit the energy to the heat medium.

Automated radiation control system — an automated system including information and instrumentation systems, and equipment that enable its functioning. This system collects and processes information about controlled parameters that characterize the radiological status in NPP controlled areas, at industrial sites, in the buffer area and radiationcontrol area, in all NPP operating modes, including design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents, as well as the NPP condition during decommissioning of its power units.

Automated radiation background control — an automated system that measures strength of exposure to gamma rays in the background.

Nuclear plant — nuclear equipment used to generate energy in preset operational modes and conditions, installed within project-defined boundaries that uses for that purpose one or more nuclear reactors and a set of related systems, devices, equipment, and buildings with personnel.

Nuclear power industry — section of the power industry that engages nuclear energy to produce heat and electricity.

Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) — dedicated agency under the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental organization of developed nations, having its headquarters in Paris, France. To date 30 countries are part of OECD. NEA's objective is to promote research and technological development and harmonization of national regulatory documents of member countries for safe, cost-effective, and ecologically clean use of nuclear power for peaceful purposes.

Nuclear plant safety — a nuclear plant's ability, during normal and abnormal operation, including emergencies, to keep the radiation impact on its personnel, citizens, and the environment within specific required limits.

Fast reactor (fast neutron reactor) — nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons (with an energy of >105 eV).

WANO — World Association of Nuclear Plant Operators, whose mission is to maximize the safety and reliability of nuclear plant operations worldwide through exchange of information and encouraging contacts among its members, comparing their working results and promoting best practices.

Commissioning — a process when the systems and equipment of the power unit or the entire NPP are launched, and their project compliance is checked. The process includes pre-commissioning setup, physical and power start-up, pilot operation, and finally commissioning of the NPP.

Water-cooled water-moderated power reactor — a shell-protected power reactor using water under pressure as heat medium, moderator, and neutron reflector.

Radioactive emission — a substance (or mix) as a gas and/or aerosol, released into the environment (air) from emitting sources.

Radiation dose — in radiation safety, a measure of impact by ionizing radiation on a biological object, typically a human. Distinction is made among exposure, absorbed, and equivalent doses.

Unified State System for Emergency Prevention and Response — an organizational system that integrates management bodies, forces and means commanded by the Federal Government, the governments of the Russian Federation constituents, local governments, and organizations, whose functions include addressing the issues regarding protection of the population and territories in emergencies. The system is designed to protect citizens and land against natural, industrial, or other disasters, to provide defense at times of peace for citizens, territories, and the environmental, material, and cultural values of the country.

NPP life cycle — all stages of evolution that a nuclear plant passes through during its existence; this includes design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning.

Closed nuclear fuel cycle — a nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) where spent nuclear fuel unloaded from the reactor is recycled to recover uranium and plutonium to be reused in nuclear fuel.

Beyond design basis accident — an accident caused by the initiating events that are not considered as such for the design basis accidents, or when a single failure of a design basis accident is accompanied by additional safety system failures, wrong decisions made by personnel.

Nuclear reactor protection shell — a device in a nuclear reactor designed to hold radioactive nuclides within the volume of the shell, in the event of emergency decompression of the reactor equipment.

Safety protections — systems (components) designed to prevent or mitigate damage to nuclear fuel, fuel element jackets, equipment, and pipelines that contain radioactive substances.

Intellectual capital — organizational intangible assets, including development of potential of already hired personnel and prospective employees (university graduates).

Availability factor (AF) — refers to the capability of rated electrical load bearing of the power unit, expressed as the ratio of the sum of power generated by the unit, and power that wasn't generated by reasons unrelated to the power unit, to the power generated during this period of time under rated (installed) capacity. The standard value for a NPP is AF = 80%.

Capacity factor — ratio of a power unit (power plant) output for a specific time interval to the power unit output at the nominal (installed) capacity for this time interval.

Emergency drill complex — a set of exercise activities the Concern holds to train its NPP management, forces, and facilities to respond to an emergency.

Concern's Crisis Center — a key component within the structure of emergency support to NPPs, it monitors main parameters of production, radiation, environment, and fire safety in the 24/7 mode.

Nuclear reactor shell — a tight reservoir designed to hold the core zone of the nuclear reactor, neutron reflector, monitoring and experimental hardware, and to organize the cooling of the reactor using a heat medium flow.

Safety culture — culture where all individuals are trained, skilled, and psychologically prepared, ensuring that NPP safety becomes a priority and inherent need that results in understanding of own responsibility, and self-control during safety-related activities.

Spent nuclear fuel — nuclear fuel contaminated in the reactor's core zone and withdrawn from it completely.

Floating thermal nuclear power plant (FTNPP) — a mobile thermal nuclear power plant with small output capacity to be used in remote regions of Russia, and abroad, for the desalination of seawater, inter alia. The plant is a non-propelled craft with a nuclear power unit, transported to the region of operation via waterways.

Radiation safety — condition when the existing and future human generations are protected against health-damaging impacts of ionizing radiation.

Radiation control — collecting information about the radiation situation at NPPs, in the environment, and people exposure.

RBMK (high-power channel reactor) — channel-type, water-cooled graphite-moderated power reactor with the power capacity of 1 GW and above, where water boils in duct channels, and saturated steam is supplied from separators into the turbines.

Reactor unit — a set of NPP systems and components designed to convert nuclear power to heat, including a reactor and directly related systems that support its normal operation, emergency cooling, emergency protections, and safety assurance, and provide compliance with mandatory auxiliary and support functions from other systems of the power plant. The limits for the reactor unit are stated specifically for each NPP in its project pack.

Situation Crisis Center — a center that ensures technical, technological, information exchange, and analytic support to activities of the HQ of Rosatom State Corporation, and involvement in information support to ongoing management of the industry both under routine conditions and in emergencies.

Fuel element — the key structural component in a nuclear reactor's core zone in which nuclear fuel is encapsulated.

Energy efficiency — efficient (rational) use of energy resources, to achieve economically justified efficiency at the existing level of engineering and technology, given compliance with environmental protection regulations.