Environmental protection and rational use of natural resources are top priority objectives of Rosenergoatom Concern JSC.
The Concern’s environmental policy ensures implementation of the basic provisions of the Russian Federation Constitution and laws, definition of main principles and obligations in the area of environmental protection, assurance of environmental safety, and sustainable development of the company.
The Concern’s Environmental Policy (EP) is available at http://www.rosenergoatom.ru/environment_safety/environment/.
The basic principles of the Concern’s EP are as follows:
NPP production activities in 2015 were carried out in unconditional compliance with standards and rules of the applicable environmental laws. NPPs were operating in a safe and reliable manner, making as low environmental impact as possible.
As part of the Concern’s Environmental Policy implementation, the following major activities were performed:
Contribution of the nuclear power plants in atmospheric pollution, if compared to all sectors of the national economy, is negligibly low.
The amount of atmospheric pollutants emission by the nuclear power plants does not exceed the permitted values and is considerably lower than the limits set by the environmental authorities. The bulk of pollutant emissions at the nuclear power plants are attributed to boiler houses, boiler facilities of health and recreation resorts, and standby diesel generator plants started on an occasional basis for scheduled test runs.
At all nuclear power plants gross atmospheric emissions of pollutants did not exceed the standard values.
|Nitrogen oxides (in NO 2 equivalent)||208.9||229.9||222.8|
|Hydrocarbons (excl. volatile organic compounds)||205.0 (including 201.0 t of methane)||238.0 (including 230.3 t of methane)||162.4 (including 161.9 t of methane)|
|Volatile organic compounds||68.4||90.9||102.9|
|Other gaseous and liquid substances||21.2||25.5||23.8|
|Total||1 511.6||1 450.6||1 268.8|
|NAME OF ODS||ODS EMITTED, T|
|Total. including ODP||6.943х0.055=0.382||7.446х0.055=0.410|
|Total. including ODP||0.170х0.11=0.019||1.670х0.11=0.184|
|Total. including ODP||0.465х0.065=0.030||0.805х0.065=0.052|
Nuclear power plants strive to further reduce harmful effect on the atmosphere: we are improving the technology used for increasing efficiency of fuel combustion, use fuel oil of higher quality (with a lower sulfur content), improve technologies used in painting, put into operation efficient gas cleaning and dust capturing units.
DISCHARGE OF POLLUTANTS INTO WATER BODIES
Nuclear power plants are large water consumers, therefore the issues of water consumption and water disposal play an important role in environmental activities. Almost all water extracted from water bodies (over 99%) was used at NPPs as industrial water (cooling of process media in turbine condensers and heat exchange equipment) and returned to water bodies.
Sea water is extracted from the Baltic Sea (Koporye Bay in the Gulf of Finland).
Fresh water is taken from the following sources:
|EXTRACTED WATER BY SOURCES||2013||2014||2015|
|Potable water from natural water sources||9.3 (among them 7.8 — ground water)||11.8 (among them 7.6 — ground water)||11.8 (among them 8.1 — ground water)|
|Potable water from water supply utility systems||6.8||7.5||7.3|
|Fresh process water from natural bodies of water||1 818.6||1 818.9||1 683.3|
|Sea water||3 544.0||4 654.1||5 149.0|
|Total||5 378.7||6 492.3||6 851.9|
|In recycled water systems||28 399.9||28 777.8||31 203.4|
|In reused water systems||312.7||358.9||410.4|
Nuclear power plants do not make a considerable impact on water sources. The water sources used by nuclear power plants do not belong to protected areas. Nuclear power plants have no effect on the wetlands included in the Ramsar List.
In 2015, NPP wastewater disposal was within the limits of water balance and the amount of generated power, and totaled 93.4% of the volume of water used. It is a good indicator of water resources use and complies with the limits established by environmental authorities.
Waste waters of household sewage and storm water drainage were treated before their discharge into surface waters at all NPPs. Control of the content of pollutants entering surface water with waste waters from NPPs was effected in accordance with duly agreed and approved rules.
All water reservoirs used for process and recycling water supply at nuclear power plants (except for the Leningrad and Bilibino NPP) are included in the List of Water Reservoirs (including Water Reservoirs with Capacity Exceeding 10 mln m 3 ), subject to development of the rules of use for each water reservoir (several reservoirs, reservoirs cascade, or waterworks in case their utilization modes eliminated the possibility of separate operation) 1 . Operation of waterworks at federal water bodies imposes additional responsibility on nuclear power plants for preservation and rational use of water resources, сleanliness of water protection areas, etc.
In 2015, the total of 6,401 mln m 3 were removed, and the share of contaminated waste water was equal to 0.07%.
6,388.5 mln m 3 of partially clean waste water and 7.2 mln m 3 of waste water treated to standard quality were discharged into water bodies in 2015, including:
The discharge volumes of polluted waste waters are steadily reduced owing to consistent modernization and reconstruction of waste water treatment facilities at nuclear power plants.
HANDLING PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION WASTE
As far as handling production and consumption waste (hereinafter — waste) is concerned, NPPs effect their environmental protection activities in accordance with legislation of the Russian Federation in the area of environmental protection and based on the license and approved draft standards for waste generation and limits on waste emplacement.
Like any other enterprises, nuclear power plants generate waste of five hazard classes, resulting from their production activities. In 2015, nuclear power plants produced 45,256 t of waste, which is 11,126 t more than in 2014 (34,130 t). The amount of waste increased mainly due to production of class 5 waste at the Leningrad NPP (virtually non-hazardous) — waste (residue) of water treatment in the process of mechanical purification of natural waters that were provided for use to an independent organization.
As of the beginning of 2015, there were 17,156 t of waste, and 19,463 t as of the year end. Following waste handling activities at NPPs in 2015, 4.6 t of waste were decontaminated (including class 1 waste (extremely hazardous) — 4.2 t, class 2 waste (highly hazardous) — 0.4 t; 578 t of classes 3 to 5 waste (moderately hazardous, low hazardous, and virtually non-hazardous) reused); 40,571 t were handed over to other enterprises; and 1,795 t of classes 3 to 5 waste were dumped at own facilities.
Waste is sourced from auxiliary structural units and units supporting nuclear power plants operation (maintenance and repair of structures, equipment, NPP personnel servicing, waste water treatment, metal and wood processing).
All production and consumption waste is emplaced at specially equipped sites, in special storages, and its disposal is controlled by ecological services of nuclear power plants.
The environmental costs incurred by NPPs include expenses for protection and rational use of water resources (including payments to other enterprises for acceptance and treatment of waste waters), atmospheric air, environmental protection against the adverse impact of production and consumption waste (including payment under contracts on transfer of waste to specialized organizations), and remediation of violated and contaminated lands.
Applicable legislation provides for a fee for the adverse environmental impact as a form of partial compensation for the damage caused to the environment by a natural resource user.
Nuclear power plants are obliged to pay for the following types of adverse impact on the environment:
|NAME||CURRENT (OPERATING) ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS||PAYMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES|
|Protection of atmospheric air and prevention of climate change||182||10|
|Collection and treatment of waste waters||472||130|
|Protection and rehabilitation of lands, surface and ground waters||259||192|
|Protection of environment against noise, vibration, and other types of physical impact||0||8|
|Preservation of biodiversity and protection of natural areas||2||43|
|Ensuring environmental radiation safety||1 225||326|
|Research activities aimed at reducing adverse human-induced impact on environment||1||1|
|Other areas of environmental protection activities||175||33|
|NAME||ACTUALLY PAID DURING THE YEAR|
|Fee for allowable and excessive emission (discharge) of pollutants (emplacement of production and consumption waste)||11,064||15,705||13,775|
|Funds (charges) and fines recovered in compensation for damage caused by breach of environmental legislation||0||140||0|
The most efficient scientific approach, allowing for quantitative assessment of the impact made by various human-induced factors on the environment and human health, is a risk analysis methodology. Since the late 1980s, this methodology was successfully applied in all economically developed countries as one of the top priority and most efficient tools of scientific substantiation of managerial solutions in the area of environmental and health protection.
In the recent years, the Nuclear Safety Institute under the Russian Academy of Sciences completed a series of scientific projects that allowed to perform comparative analysis of radiation risks imposed by Russian NPPs operation, and chemical risks related to coal-fired combined heat and power plants, other industrial facilities and human-induced factors for the health of the Russian population. This kind of research in evaluation of radiation and chemical risks for human health in local communities situated close to NPP locations were carried out in the Sverdlovsk and Voronezh Oblasts where the Beloyarsk and Novovoronezh NPPs are located, accordingly, and where it was decided to construct new units.
The results were taken into account in preparation of the Concern’s environmental policy and development of the Concern’s Environmental Management System (EMS).
A high level of nuclear power plants safety has been achieved recently. NPP radiation impact on the environment through actual emission and discharge of radioactive substances into the atmospheric air and water bodies is significantly below allowable values and does not exceed the minimum significant dose equal to 10 μSv per year. With such a volume of radionuclides emission to the environment, the radiation risk for the population is guaranteed to be unconditionally acceptable (less than 10 -6 ). It permits us to consider the actual level of emissions and discharges of NPPs as optimized.
The Concern developed program activities in key areas, including environmental, along with corporate standards which reflect short-term goals and comply with the Concern’s strategic concept on EMS improvement.
The following organization standards were developed and enacted to harmonize the environmental activities of nuclear power plants with the requirements of Russian laws and regulatory acts of various levels:
ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT AND EMS CERTIFICATION
With a view to achieve its goal and implement the basic principles of the Environmental Policy, the Concern assumed the obligation to introduce and support best practices of environmental management according to international and national standards in the area of environmental management.
The Concern ensures environmentally safe production of power and heat at nuclear power plants, improves the EMS and certifies it according to the requirements of ISO 14001:2004 international standard and GOST R ISO 14001-2007 national standard, which is an efficient way of confirming the Concern's commitment to ideas of environmental protection, as well as an opportunity to increase competitive power and to improve interaction with stakeholders and general public.
Inspection audits of the Concern's headquarters EMS were held, as well as recertification audits of the certified EMS at the Bilibino, Kalinin, Kola, Kursk, Leningrad, Novovoronezh, Rostov, and Smolensk NPPs in 2015. According to the audit results, certificates of compliance with the standard requirements were issued for the EMS.
Inspection and/or recertification audits were performed by highly qualified experts holding national and international accreditation, who appraised a high level of work organization in the area of shaping and development of the Concern's EMS and each operational nuclear power plant.