3. KEY PERFORMANCE RESULTS

3.1 Situation in Power Industry 3.2 International Activities 3.3. Generating Capacities. Developing Generating Potential 3.4. Ensuring Safety of Russian NPPs 3.5. Radiation Effect on Personnel and Population 3.6. Environmental Impact 3.7. Financial Results 3.8. HR Policy, Occupational Safety and Health 3.9. Innovation Management. Knowledge Preservation and Transfer 3.10. Social Policy. Developing Areas of Presence. Charity 3.11. Investment Program

3.6. Environmental Impact

Environmental protection and rational use of natural resources are top priority objectives of Rosenergoatom Concern JSC.

MAIN GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

The Concern’s environmental policy ensures implementation of the basic provisions of the Russian Federation Constitution and laws, definition of main principles and obligations in the area of environmental protection, assurance of environmental safety, and sustainable development of the company.

The Concern’s Environmental Policy (EP) is available at http://www.rosenergoatom.ru/environment_safety/environment/.

The basic principles of the Concern’s EP are as follows:

  • Compliance of production activities with legal and other regulatory requirements and standards, including international, in the environmental protection area;
  • Decrease of the NPP impact on the environment as low as reasonably possible;
  • Rational use of natural resources;
  • Environmental information transparency and availability;
  • Environmental management system improvement.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONCERN’S EP:

  • Compliance of production activities with legal and other regulatory requirements and standards, including international, in the environmental protection area;
  • Decrease of the NPP impact on the environment as low as reasonably possible;
  • Rational use of natural resources;
  • Environmental information transparency and availability;
  • Environmental management system improvement.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEM OF ROSATOM STATE CORPORATION

MAIN RESULTS

RESULTS OF 2015

NPP production activities in 2015 were carried out in unconditional compliance with standards and rules of the applicable environmental laws. NPPs were operating in a safe and reliable manner, making as low environmental impact as possible.

  • Changes in the environmental legislation related to production and consumption waste management were analyzed. The Procedure for Production Control of Waste Management in Rosenergoatom Concern JSC and the Operator Company's Guidelines for Organization of Work during Production and Consumption Waste Management in Rosenergoatom Concern JSC were updated;
  • Inspection and/or recertification audits of certified environmental management systems of the Concern's headquarters and operating NPPs were organized and conducted in order to ensure compliance with the requirements of ISO 14001:2004 international standard and GOST R ISO 14001-2007 national standard. The environmental certificates validity was confirmed;
  • A favorable opinion of the state environmental expertise was obtained on the basis of justification materials to the licenses for ope­ration of the Kalinin NPP power unit No. 1 at 104% capacity and approved by the order of the Rosprirodnadzor Department for Central Federal Okrug;
  • An Automated Information System for NPP Environmental Safety was commissioned by Rosenergoatom Concern JSC;
  • Rosenergoatom Concern JSC and its branches — operational nuclear power plants performed the activities envisaged by the Comprehensive Plan for Implementation of the Environmental Policy of Rosatom State Corporation for 2012 and until 2015, and scheduled for 2015.

As part of the Concern’s Environmental Policy implementation, the following major activities were performed:

  • New state-of-the-art sorbing materials for water purifying filters were purchased at the Beloyarsk NPP. As a result, lower content of contaminants was observed in the water released through discharge outlet No. 7.
  • Treatment facilities of the storm water sewage system (stage 1) were upgraded.
  • Construction and assembly, start-up and commissioning operations were completed for local treatment facilities for discharged drain and storm water at the discharge outlet No. 4 of the main production site of the Leningrad NPP.
  • As part of compensatory measures taken by the Novovoronezh NPP for artificial reproduction of aquatic biological resources, with a view to improve water quality and preservation of fisheries, young herbivorous fish (silver carp) was released into the water pond of the fifth power unit and into the Don River.
  • Biological treatment facilities were upgraded at the Smolensk NPP.
  • Treatment facilities efficiency was assessed at the Kola NPP, and a Report of Assessment of Treatment Facilities Efficiency at Kola Nuclear Plant was prepared.

VOLUME OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS INTO ATMOSPHERE BY NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN 2013–2015

MAIN INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Contribution of the nuclear power plants in atmospheric pollution, if compared to all sectors of the national economy, is negligibly low.

The amount of atmospheric pollutants emission by the nuclear power plants does not exceed the permitted values and is considerably lower than the limits set by the environmental authorities. The bulk of pollutant emissions at the nuclear power plants are attributed to boiler houses, boiler facilities of health and recreation resorts, and standby diesel generator plants started on an occasional basis for scheduled test runs.

At all nuclear power plants gross atmospheric emissions of pollutants did not exceed the standard values.

IN 2015:

  • 1,314 t of air pollutants (30.6% of the amount allowed in the reporting year) were emitted;
  • Amount of solid pollutants — 45 t, gaseous and liquid pollutants — 1,269 t;
  • Gas cleaning and dust capturing units received 206 t of pollutants, 201 t out of them were collected and decontaminated (some 98% collecting efficiency).

EMISSIONS OF NO X , SO X , AND OTHER SIGNIFICANT POLLUTANTS INTO ATMOSPHERE, INDICATING THEIR TYPE AND MASS, T

INDICATOR 2013 2014 2015
Sulfur dioxide 851.6 723.3 613.6
Carbon oxides 156.5 143.0 143.3
Nitrogen oxides (in NO 2 equivalent) 208.9 229.9 222.8
Hydrocarbons (excl. volatile organic compounds) 205.0 (including 201.0 t of methane) 238.0 (including 230.3 t of methane) 162.4 (including 161.9 t of methane)
Volatile organic compounds 68.4 90.9 102.9
Other gaseous and liquid substances 21.2 25.5 23.8
Total 1 511.6 1 450.6 1 268.8

EMISSION OF OZONE-DESTROYING SUBSTANCES (ODS) IN 2014-2015

NAME OF ODS ODS EMITTED, T
2014 2015
HCFC-22 6.943 7.446
Total. including ODP 6.943х0.055=0.382 7.446х0.055=0.410
HCFC-141b 0.170 1.670
Total. including ODP 0.170х0.11=0.019 1.670х0.11=0.184
HCFC-142b 0.465 0.805
Total. including ODP 0.465х0.065=0.030 0.805х0.065=0.052

Nuclear power plants strive to further reduce harmful effect on the atmosphere: we are improving the technology used for increasing efficiency of fuel combustion, use fuel oil of higher quality (with a lower sulfur content), improve technologies used in painting, put into operation efficient gas cleaning and dust capturing units.

DISCHARGE OF POLLUTANTS INTO WATER BODIES

Nuclear power plants are large water consumers, therefore the issues of water consumption and water disposal play an important role in environmental activities. Almost all water extracted from water bodies (over 99%) was used at NPPs as industrial water (cooling of process media in turbine condensers and heat exchange equipment) and returned to water bodies.

Sea water is extracted from the Baltic Sea (Koporye Bay in the Gulf of Finland).

Fresh water is taken from the following sources:

  • Heat sink, Saratov Reservoir (Balakovo NPP);
  • Beloyarsk Reservoir (Beloyarsk NPP);
  • Reservoir on Bolshoi Ponneurgen Stream (Bilibino NPP);
  • Lake Udomlya (Kalinin NPP);
  • Lake Imandra (Kola NPP);
  • Seym River (Kursk NPP);
  • Sista River, Kovashi River, Lake Kopanskoye (Leningrad NPP);
  • Don River (Novovoronezh NPP);
  • Tsimlyansk Reservoir (Rostov NPP);
  • Desnogorsk Reservoir on Desna River (Smolensk NPP).

USE OF WATER BY SOURCES, MLN M3

EXTRACTED WATER BY SOURCES 2013 2014 2015
Potable water from natural water sources 9.3 (among them 7.8 — ground water) 11.8 (among them 7.6 — ground water) 11.8 (among them 8.1 — ground water)
Potable water from water supply utility systems 6.8 7.5 7.3
Fresh process water from natural bodies of water 1 818.6 1 818.9 1 683.3
Sea water 3 544.0 4 654.1 5 149.0
Total 5 378.7 6 492.3 6 851.9

TOTAL VOLUME OF MULTIUSABLE AND REUSABLE WATER, MLN M 3

WATER CONSUMPTION 2013 2014 2015
In recycled water systems 28 399.9 28 777.8 31 203.4
In reused water systems 312.7 358.9 410.4

Nuclear power plants do not make a considerable impact on water sources. The water sources used by nuclear power plants do not belong to protected areas. Nuclear power plants have no effect on the wetlands included in the Ramsar List.

In 2015, NPP wastewater disposal was within the limits of water balance and the amount of generated power, and totaled 93.4% of the volume of water used. It is a good indicator of water resources use and complies with the limits established by environmental authorities.

Waste waters of household sewage and storm water drainage were treated before their discharge into surface waters at all NPPs. Control of the content of pollutants entering surface water with waste waters from NPPs was effected in accordance with duly agreed and approved rules.

All water reservoirs used for process and recycling water supply at nuclear power plants (except for the Leningrad and Bilibino NPP) are included in the List of Water Reservoirs (including Water Reservoirs with Capacity Exceeding 10 mln m 3 ), subject to development of the rules of use for each water reservoir (several reservoirs, reservoirs cascade, or waterworks in case their utilization modes eliminated the possibility of separate operation) 1 . Operation of waterworks at federal water bodies imposes additional responsibility on nuclear power plants for preservation and rational use of water resources, сleanliness of water protection areas, etc.

In 2015, the total of 6,401 mln m 3 were removed, and the share of contaminated waste water was equal to 0.07%.

6,388.5 mln m 3 of partially clean waste water and 7.2 mln m 3 of waste water treated to standard quality were discharged into water bodies in 2015, including:

  • 6.8 mln m 3 at the mechanical water treatment facilities;
  • 0.4 mln m 3 at the biological water treatment facilities.
  • Waste waters were discharged into the following water bodies:
  • Heat sink, Saratov Reservoir (Balakovo NPP);
  • Beloyarsk Reservoir, Olkhovskoye Swamp (Beloyarsk NPP);
  • Bolshoi Ponneurgen Stream (Bilibino NPP);
  • Heat sinks, Volchina River, Khomutovka River (Kalinin NPP);
  • Lake Imandra (Kola NPP);
  • Seym River (Kursk NPP);
  • Sista River, Kovashi River, Peipia River, Gulf of Finland (Leningrad NPP);
  • Don River (Novovoronezh NPP);
  • Tsimlyansk Reservoir, heat sink (Rostov NPP);
  • Desnogorsk Reservoir on Desna River (Smolensk NPP).

The discharge volumes of polluted waste waters are steadily reduced owing to consistent modernization and reconstruction of waste water treatment facilities at nuclear power plants.

HANDLING PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION WASTE

As far as handling production and consumption waste (hereinafter — waste) is concerned, NPPs effect their environmental protection activities in accordance with legislation of the Russian Federation in the area of environmental protection and based on the license and approved draft standards for waste generation and limits on waste emplacement.

Like any other enterprises, nuclear power plants generate waste of five hazard classes, resulting from their production activities. In 2015, nuclear power plants produced 45,256 t of waste, which is 11,126 t more than in 2014 (34,130 t). The amount of waste increased mainly due to production of class 5 waste at the Leningrad NPP (virtually non-hazardous) — waste (residue) of water treatment in the process of mechanical purification of natural waters that were provided for use to an independent organization.

PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION WASTE BY CLASSES, T

INDICATORS 2013 2014 2015
Class 1 59 56 47
Class 2 57 256 131
Class 3 2,311 1,369 2,795
Class 4 13,544 15,406 12,782
Class 5 19,994 17,043 29,501

WASTE MANAGEMENT IN 2015, T

DISTRIBUTION OF WASTE GENERATED IN 2015 BY HAZARD CLASSES

As of the beginning of 2015, there were 17,156 t of waste, and 19,463 t as of the year end. Following waste handling activities at NPPs in 2015, 4.6 t of waste were decontaminated (including class 1 waste (extremely hazardous) — 4.2 t, class 2 waste (highly hazardous) — 0.4 t; 578 t of classes 3 to 5 waste (moderately hazardous, low hazardous, and virtually non-hazardous) reused); 40,571 t were handed over to other enterprises; and 1,795 t of classes 3 to 5 waste were dumped at own facilities.

Waste is sourced from auxiliary structural units and units supporting nuclear power plants operation (maintenance and repair of structures, equipment, NPP personnel servicing, waste water treatment, metal and wood processing).

All production and consumption waste is emplaced at specially equipped sites, in special storages, and its disposal is controlled by ecological services of nuclear power plants.

ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS

The environmental costs incurred by NPPs include expenses for protection and rational use of water resources (including payments to other enterprises for acceptance and treatment of waste waters), atmospheric air, environmental protection against the adverse impact of production and consumption waste (including payment under contracts on transfer of waste to specialized organizations), and remediation of violated and contaminated lands.

Applicable legislation provides for a fee for the adverse environmental impact as a form of partial compensation for the damage caused to the environment by a natural resource user.

Nuclear power plants are obliged to pay for the following types of adverse impact on the environment:

  • Atmospheric emissions of pollutants;
  • Discharge of pollutants into waters;
  • Production and consumption waste emplacement.

ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS, MLN RUBLES

NAME CURRENT (OPERATING) ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS PAYMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES
Protection of atmospheric air and prevention of climate change 182 10
Collection and treatment of waste waters 472 130
Waste handling 139 208
Protection and rehabilitation of lands, surface and ground waters 259 192
Protection of environment against noise, vibration, and other types of physical impact 0 8
Preservation of biodiversity and protection of natural areas 2 43
Ensuring environmental radiation safety 1 225 326
Research activities aimed at reducing adverse human-induced impact on environment 1 1
Other areas of environmental protection activities 175 33

FEE FOR ADVERSE IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT, THOUSAND RUBLES

NAME ACTUALLY PAID DURING THE YEAR
2013 2014 2015
Fee for allowable and excessive emission (discharge) of pollutants (emplacement of production and consumption waste) 11,064 15,705 13,775
Funds (charges) and fines recovered in compensation for damage caused by breach of environmental legislation 0 140 0

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT

The most efficient scientific approach, allowing for quantitative assessment of the impact made by various human-induced factors on the environment and human health, is a risk analysis methodology. Since the late 1980s, this methodology was successfully applied in all economically developed countries as one of the top priority and most efficient tools of scientific substantiation of managerial solutions in the area of environmental and health protection.

In the recent years, the Nuclear Safety Institute under the Russian Academy of Sciences completed a series of scientific projects that allowed to perform comparative analysis of radiation risks imposed by Russian NPPs operation, and chemical risks related to coal-fired combined heat and power plants, other industrial facilities and human-induced factors for the health of the Russian population. This kind of research in evaluation of radiation and chemical risks for human health in local communities situated close to NPP locations were carried out in the Sverdlovsk and Voronezh Oblasts where the Beloyarsk and Novovoronezh NPPs are located, accordingly, and where it was decided to construct new units.

The results were taken into account in preparation of the Concern’s environmental policy and development of the Concern’s Environmental Management System (EMS).

A high level of nuclear power plants safety has been achieved recently. NPP radiation impact on the environment through actual emission and discharge of radioactive substances into the atmospheric air and water bodies is significantly below allowable values and does not exceed the minimum significant dose equal to 10 μSv per year. With such a volume of radionuclides emission to the environment, the radiation risk for the population is guaranteed to be unconditionally acceptable (less than 10 -6 ). It permits us to consider the actual level of emissions and discharges of NPPs as optimized.

ECOLOGICAL ACCEPTABILITY

The Concern developed program activities in key areas, including environmental, along with corporate standards which reflect short-term goals and comply with the Concern’s strategic concept on EMS improvement.

The following organization standards were developed and enacted to harmonize the environmental activities of nuclear power plants with the requirements of Russian laws and regulatory acts of various levels:

  • Major Rules of Ensuring Environmental Protection at Nuclear Power Plants;
  • Methodic Guidelines for Organization of Industrial Ecological Monitoring at Nuclear Power Plants;
  • Methodic Guidelines. Technologies of Volume Reduction and Reuse Methods for Hazardous Waste Produced during Nuclear Power Plants Operation;
  • Guidelines for Organization of Work during Production and Consumption Waste Handling;
  • Procedure of Industrial Control of Waste Handling in Rosenergoatom Concern JSC, etc.

ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT AND EMS CERTIFICATION

With a view to achieve its goal and implement the basic principles of the Environmental Policy, the Concern assumed the obligation to introduce and support best practices of environmental management according to international and national standards in the area of environmental management.

The Concern ensures environmentally safe production of power and heat at nuclear power plants, improves the EMS and certifies it according to the requirements of ISO 14001:2004 international standard and GOST R ISO 14001-2007 national standard, which is an efficient way of confirming the Concern's commitment to ideas of environmental protection, as well as an opportunity to increase competitive power and to improve interaction with stakeholders and general public.

Inspection audits of the Concern's headquarters EMS were held, as well as recertification audits of the certified EMS at the Bilibino, Kalinin, Kola, Kursk, Leningrad, Novovoronezh, Rostov, and Smolensk NPPs in 2015. According to the audit results, certificates of compliance with the standard requirements were issued for the EMS.

Inspection and/or recertification audits were performed by highly qualified experts holding national and international accreditation, who appraised a high level of work organization in the area of shaping and development of the Concern's EMS and each operational nuclear power plant.