In its activities the Concern's endeavors to ensure the highest possible radiation safety level for the personnel of nuclear power plants and the population in their location areas, and to prevent radioactive contamination of the environment above the admissible levels set forth by the radiation safety regulations.
Based on the radiation safety principles adopted by global community, the Concern consistently conducts the policy on implementation and further development of methodology on radiation protection optimization at NPPs. The methodology consists in maintaining individual exposure doses and number of exposed persons on the lowest possible levels taking into account economic and social factors.
wing to focused organizational and technical efforts at NPPs, the radiation doses of personnel are steadily decreasing. The values of average individual dose of personnel and average collective dose per power unit among all NPPs in 2015 are comparable with similar indicators of the previous year, and are primarily defined by the amount of radiation hazardous maintenance work performed at nuclear power plants.
Current radiation exposure of personnel at nuclear power plants with VVER and BN type reactors almost reached the optimal level comparable to similar indicators of foreign NPPs.
The radiation environment in the areas of NPPs shows natural background levels, which are typical for Russia — gamma-radiation intensity varied between 0.06 and 0.20 μSv/h.
Constant control of the population and environment exposure to radiation is exercised by NPP radiation safety departments and supervised by state sanitary and epidemiological centers of the Russian Federal Medical-Biological Agency (FMBA) at the Concern’s NPPs and in their location areas.
For efficient control of safety barriers integrity on a regular and uninterrupted basis, the NPP design provides for a radiation control system (RCS).
The Concern uses an automated system of individual dosimeter control (ASIDC) for collection and storage of information related to current, operational, and emergency exposure doses of NPP personnel, as well as for analysis and planning of a collective dose.
The ASIDC keeps record of an employee’s individual dose:
The ASIDC ensures creation of a control system for dose loads on NPP personnel according to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. The ASIDC is created in the form of a distributed system consisting of local ASIDC at nuclear power plants, and an industry center for control and accounting of individual doses of nuclear power plants personnel.
|RESULTS OF 2015||MAIN AREAS OF OPTIMIZING CONCERN’S RADIATION PROTECTION|
|For optimizing the personnel doses → an Optimization Program for Personnel Radiation Safety at NPPs was enacted.
For improvement of personnel dose planning → a software module for the automated workstation calculating individual radiation risk (ARMIR AES, version 6.1) was commissioned. The software module is based on evaluation of ratios of individual radiation risk for NPP personnel.
There are automated radiation control systems (ARCS) in the areas of all Russian NPPs operation. The systems are united into an industry level sub-system with the central control panel located in the Concern’s Crisis Center.
Major requirements for organization, controlled parameter range, frequency, techniques, and methods of radiation control of the environment in the areas of the Concern's NPPs location are defined by Procedural Guidelines 1.3.2.06.027.0045-2009 — Organization of Radiation Control in Nuclear Power Plants Location Areas, coordinated with the Russian FMBA. Radiation control of the environment at the location of NPPs is exercised according to the rules for radiation control taking into account the type of reactor units and particulars of their locations.
The equipment used for establishing the ARCS for nuclear power plants was mainly produced domestically (Atlant systems are installed at all NPPs except for Kola and Leningrad). In addition to Atlant systems, the Balakovo, Kalinin, and Kursk NPPs feature SkyLink systems (Germany). The Kola and Leningrad NPPs use the systems manufactured by Finnish RadosTechnology.
ARCS stands located in populated areas within the NPP supervised zone are equipped with information panels displaying data about dose intensity at the location. The radiation environment related information is available at the Concern’s website, and at: http://www.russianatom.ru.
Regular measurement of radioactive substances concentration in the atmosphere and heat sinks, measurement of soil and plant activity, and food stuff at the control points located at a distance of 50 km from NPP confirm the absence of a detectable impact of NPP operation on the condition of objects of outside environment.
|TBq||% of allowable emissions||MBq||% of allowable emissions|
The Concern takes a conservative approach to accounting of gas-aerosol emissions and liquid discharges. The approach consists in the presumption of radioactive substances presence in emissions and discharges (even if they are not observed by the existing instruments and methods) at the level of 0.5 of the minimum scale value.
The picture in page 94 shows IRG emissions in percentage of the standards for allowable emissions.
No unauthorized discharge of radioactive nuclides into the environment took place in 2015. Like in the previous years, the actual gas-aerosol emissions and liquid discharges were significantly lower than the standards established by Rostekhnadzor.
The analysis of data on NPP emissions and discharges confirms the stable and reliable operating level of NPP power units and the efficiency of protective barriers created to prevent dissipation of radioactive substances.
HANDLING RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL
Radioactive waste (RAW) handling is primarily focused on gradual decrease in the volume of their production, and conversion of RAW to a conditioned state ensuring safe temporary storage of radioactive waste at NPPs, and their further transfer to disposal facilities of the National Operator for Radioactive Waste Management FSUE.
The Concern equips NPPs with RAW treatment facilities, reconstructs the existing and creates new storages for RAW at NPPs which provide for environmental safety of nuclear power plants throughout the entire period of their operation and during decommissioning. All operations related to RAW are carried out in compliance with the applicable federal laws.
|2015 Г.||NUMBER OF SPENT FAS SEGMENTED IN 2015||TOTAL NUMBER OF FAS SEGMENTED SINCE BEGINNING OF OPERATION||FAS REMOVED BY GKHK FSUE IN 2015|
|Kursk NPP||1 978||5 212||2 304|
|Leningrad NPP||2 562||8 276||2 880|