Safety is an utmost priority of the Concern as the operator. The Concern branches — nuclear power plants feature failsafe and secure operation in every aspect of activity during the whole life cycle.
Rosenergoatom Concern JSC sees its mission as supplying consumers with power and heat produced by the Concern NPPs with guaranteed safety as its top business priority.
Meanwhile, Rosenergoatom Concern JSC in its activities consistently and purposefully discharges the obligations arising from the Convention on Nuclear Safety, accounts for the recommendations of the IAEA regulations and guidelines for NPP safety, and regulations and principles of the IAEA International Nuclear Safety Group (INSAG) formulated in the Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, and the Safety Culture.
The most advanced service out of those provided by the IAEA to its member countries is the Operational Safety Review Team (OSART).
Rosenergoatom Concern JSC has been using the OSART mechanism since 2005.
In response to the IAEA post-Fukushima Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, the operator has developed a long-term OSART plan (until 2023) with a higher frequency of missions (one plant every two years). In-principal agreement has been reached with IAEA to implement this plan. Russia became the country with the most advanced OSART program after that.
Moreover, Rosenergoatom Concern JSC filed an initiative in 2015 to invite the IAEA mission for consideration of corporate functions performed by the operator in support of its NPPs safety (OSART corporate mission). The IAEA consent was received to conduct this mission in 2018.
Between 2005 and 2015, Russian NPPs hosted five OSART missions and three OSART follow-up missions.
Russian NPPs were operating in a failsafe and secure mode, and followed the general trend of enhancing safety at the existing power stations in 2015.
The table gives information on deviations at the operational NPP power units, injuries, unplanned automatic reactor shutdowns, fires (ignitions) in comparison with 2014.
The figure on page 83 visualizes information on the deviations in NPP operation between 2008 and 2015 classified according to the INES scale.
In 2015, the number of the deviations in NPP operation classified as Level 0/Beyond the INES scale totaled 31. Three events were on Level 1 of the INES scale: the Beloyarsk NPP power unit No. 3, the Kursk NPP power unit No. 2, the Kalinin NPP power unit No. 2.
In 2014, two events on Level 1 of the INES scale occurred: on March 2 and November 4 — both at the Beloyarsk NPP power unit No. 4 (physical start-up stage).
There were no incidents above Level 1 on the INES scale in 2015 and 2014.
One fire (Rostov NPP) and one ignition (Kalinin NPP) occurred at the operating nuclear plants in 2015. There were also one fire and one ignition in 2014.
In 2015, one of Rosenergoatom Concern JSC employees was injured at the Kursk NPP, and two (at the Beloyarsk and Kalinin NPPs) — in 2014.
As shown in the figure, the average (per 7,000 hours of operation) number of critical reactor scrams (WANO indicator) for Russian NPPs is considerably lower than that for other nuclear power plants worldwide.
|NPP||DEVIATIONS||UNPLANNED AUTOMATIC SCRAMS CRITICAL||INJURIES (NUMBER)||FIRES/IGNITIONS|
NPP SAFETY ASSURANCE CONTROL
The Concern takes a series of internal and external measures confirming the compliance with Russian and international requirements for nuclear power plant safety.
As part of NPP safety assurance control in Rosenergoatom Concern JSC, the operator’s structural units carry out integrated and ad-hoc inspections of the safety status. The main goals of the inspections are as follows:
NPPs are inspected according to the annual action plan, NPP inspection schedule, instructions of Rosenergoatom Concern JSC management and Rosatom State Corporation General Inspector. Ad-hoc inspections are held to thoroughly investigate the reasons for safety worsening and take the required remedial actions in case of deterioration in NPP operation safety indicators, increase in the number of equipment malfunctions or problems with nuclear power plants operation.
In 2015, the Concern’s supervisory and operational control committees held 34 safety inspections at the existing nuclear power plants and those under construction.
In order to take the required actions in the problem areas of NPP electric equipment operation in 2015, the operator organized and held unscheduled targeted self-assessment at nuclear power plants on the following subjects: Condition and Quality of Electric Equipment at NPPs, and Efficient Application of Basic Safety Culture Components.
Relevant measures were taken in the problem areas discovered during the inspections in order to improve the operational safety at nuclear power plants, including the operating company level.
On the basis of analysis of the condition and trends of NPP safety in 2015, a list of key projects and problem areas was compiled for supervisory monitoring and performance assessment in 2016:
INCREASING SAFETY AND STABILITY OF NPPS AGAINST EXTREME EXTERNAL IMPACTS
In connection with the events occurred in Japan which caused the accident at the Fukushima NPP, the Concern has developed and implemented an analysis of possible accident development scenarios at Russian nuclear power plants against extreme external impacts, determining activities aimed at mitigating consequences and reducing the impact on population and environment in case of a severe beyond design basis accident (Plan of Activities Intended to Improve Safety of Operating NPPs, and Activities Intended to Reduce Consequences of Severe Beyond Design Accidents at NPPs).
Each year the Concern updates its activities according to the results achieved in the previous time period.
The activities scheduled for 2015 were completed.
The activities intended to improve stability of nuclear power plants against natural and manmade impacts are performed in three phases:
Safety culture is a basic principle of NPP safety management.
The Concern’s activity in the area of safety culture is aimed at forming a high level of commitment to safety among the employees of the Concern nuclear power plants. Commitment to safety is shown in continuous improvement of activity that affects safety, in self-consciousness of employees who understand their responsibility in the area of safety and their self-control during performance of all operations. All this together guarantees a steadily high level of NPP safety.
Detailed information about implementation of the Procedure for Organization of Work on Developing and Maintaining Safety Culture in Rosenergoatom Concern JSC may be found in 2014 Annual Report of the Concern (pages 69–70).
In 2015, the Concern’s nuclear power plants organized and performed self-evaluation of efficiency in application of basic safety culture components.
Evaluation of the safety culture status allowed to discover the areas related to failsafe and secure operation, and requiring improvement, namely:
Self-evaluation resulted in development of stationary and corporate events aimed at safety culture improvement.
Rosenergoatom Concern JSC established a Safety Culture Council in 2015. Headed by the CEO, the Council endeavors to create commitment to safety culture in the Concern, and a trustworthy and transparent environment for consideration (discussion) of safety related issues.
In 2015, the Concern performed activities to ensure fire safety, in particular:
With a view to raise the fire safety level at nuclear power plants and preparedness of fire fighters and personnel for fire extinguishing, a fire training facility was delivered to the Leningrad NPP in 2015.
The Concern pays great attention to industrial safety of NPP Hazardous Production Facilities (HPFs).
As of December 31, 2015, 86 HPFs were registered with the departmental (industry-specific) section of the state register of hazardous production fa- cilities according to the Federal Law on Industri- al Safety of Hazardous Production Facilities 1 . All these HPFs are insured pursuant to the Federal Law on Compulsory Civil Liability Insurance for Owners of a Hazardous Facility for Causing Harm as a Result of an Accident at the Hazardous Facility.
Industrial Safety Declarations were prepared pursuant to regulatory requirements for hazardous production facilities of 1st and 2nd hazard classes in compliance with regulatory documents. The Concern employees involved in operation of HPFs undergo training and certification on the matters of industrial safety in the appropriate committees of Rostekhnadzor, the Concern Headquarters, and NPPs.
The Concern has the industrial safety management system in place in order to prevent industrial accidents and incidents, as well as in order to plan and implement priority and long-term measures aimed at increasing industrial safety of hazardous production facilities and at providing due training for the Concern’s personnel making them ready to containment and elimination of consequences of accidents and incidents at HPFs.
Nonproliferation of nuclear materials is ensured through the Concern’s system of state accounting and control of nuclear materials. This system functions in full compliance with the requirements of international and Russian regulations and is under control of Rosatom State Corporation and Rostekhnadzor.
The system for nonproliferation of nuclear materials is described in detail in 2014 Annual Report (pages 74–75). Each year a physical inventory count of nuclear materials takes place in order to comply with the procedure for accounting and control of nuclear fuel at the places of storage and use of fuel assemblies.
EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM AT RUSSIAN NPPS
The Concern has created and currently operates the Emergency Prevention and Response System (EPRS). The system is used to plan, ensure preparedness, and conduct activities aimed at protecting personnel and nuclear power plant premises against emergency situations, both natural and manmade.
In structural terms, the Concern’s EPRS is a sub-system of the Industry-Specific Emergency Prevention and Response System of Rosatom State Corporation and is operated in liaison with regional and municipal subsystems of the Unified State System for Emergency Prevention and Response, according to the location of nuclear power plants.
The particularity of the Concern’s emergency response system operation consists in a very efficient mechanism of cooperation in case of emergency. Appropriate resources and centralized reserves of funds and materials have been created at each NPP for containment and elimination of accidents and emergencies. Following the accident at the Fukushima NPP, all nuclear power plants were additionally equipped with mobile emergency units, newest systems were created for communication, public announcement, and information support.
The availability of communication and public announcement systems is provided (24/7) by duty shift of the Crisis Center and operations control duty services (duty operators) of operating NPPs.
The important place in the emergency response system belongs to the group for emergency assistance to nuclear power plants (EANPP), and coordinating bodies (committees on emergency prevention and elimination, and fire safety) at operating NPPs. In the face of an emergency, the EANPP group closely cooperates with technical support centers (TSC) created on the basis of the organizations which are general design contractors, chief designers, research advisors, as well as leading Russian institutions involved in matters of the nuclear power industry.
14 TSCs are currently in operation. Each TSC has a 24/7 duty in place, and interaction with the Concern’s Crisis Center is also organized.
At the same time, as part of the drill, INEX-5 exercises were held under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Information exchange with the IAEA was underway.
The results of the drill showed capability of the operator’s system for emergency planning and emergency response to act in non-routine and emergency situations, and improved the international image of Rosenergoatom Concern JSC.
NUCLEAR POWER PLANT STABILITY ENHANCEMENT ACTIVITIES IN 2015 INCLUDED:
The Concern’s emergency prevention and elimination system is a well-coordinated and interconnected system operating 24/7 and receiving information from NPPs in real time. The Crisis Center monitors main process, radiation, environmental, and fire protection parameters 24 hours a day 7 days a week, which are also submitted to Technical Support Centers thus creating a unified information space for all participants of emergency response.
The Concern’s emergency prevention and elimination system currently in place meets all requirements set for the participants of the Unified State System for Emergency Prevention and Response, is one of its most sophisticated links and corresponds to the best global practice.
The Concern, as the operator, is responsible for providing physical protection, including anti-terrorist stability of nuclear power plants on all stages of their life cycles (design, construction, operation, decommissioning) as nuclear hazardous facilities; protecting state, proprietary, and trade secrets; and ensuring economic security of the enterprise while maintaining the Concern’s legitimacy and corporate interests.
High priority of safe operation of the physical protection system in the Concern’s branches — nuclear power plants was stipulated by discharging the obligations related to main components of safe nuclear power use, building up the capabilities of the national system for nonproliferation of nuclear materials aimed at avoidance of nuclear materials theft, and prevention of the subversive activities related to nuclear materials, nuclear plants and nuclear materials storage sites.
In 2015, there were no unauthorized actions related to the Concern’s branches — nuclear power plants, including trespassing into restricted areas. No cases were reviewed for administrative sanctions, license suspension and/or termination by Rostekhnadzor inspectorates (in relation to physical protection).